Frequently Asked Question's :-

One of the amazing things about Indian homes is that the huge majority of them are built using completely standardized building practices.


If the house is of brick construction, then courses of bricks are laid to construct the walls. Floors, beams and internal walls are constructed as the building develops, with plumbing and wiring for water and electricity being installed as appropriate.

If you build a new home: The latest figures show that buying or building new construction will set you back an average of 1200. … For one, new homes are usually more spacious, with a median size of 1250 square feet—so the cost per square foot, 1200 to 2250, is actually lower than that of existing homes

the techniques used to build homes produce reliable housing quickly at a low cost (relatively speaking). If you ever watch any house being built, you will find that it goes through the following steps:

  • Grading and site preparation
  • Foundation construction
  • Framing
  • Installation of windows and doors
  • Roofing
  • Rough Electrical all
  • Rough plumbing
  • Rough HVAC
  • Insulation
  • Drywall
  • Underlayment
  • Trim
  • Painting
  • Finish electrical
  • Bathroom and kitchen counters and cabinets
  • Finish plumbing
  • Carpet and flooring
  • Finish HVAC
  • Hookup to water main, or well drilling
  • Hookup to seweror installation of a septic system
  • Punch list

Many of these steps are performed by independent crews known as subcontractors. For example, the framing is generally done by one subcontractor specializing in framing, while the roofing is done by a completely different subcontractor specializing in roofing. Each subcontractor is an independent business. All of the subcontractors are coordinated by a contractor who oversees the job and is responsible for completing the house on time and on budget.

This includes clearing out debris and trees, leveling out the lot where the house will go, and pouring the foundation. A month is about average for this step. Framing the house and building the roof – Framing usually takes about two months, but bad weather can delay things here.

5 Things You Need To Know When Building A New Home

  • Know your numbers. Before you start building your new home, run some numbers to determine whether you can afford to build the home you want. …
  • Check the reputation of your builder. Many builders are out there, but not all are created equal. …
  • Build with resale in mind. …
  • Think Green. …
  • Don’t forget the punch.
  • Again, the length of the pre construction process will depend on the scope of the project. This phase can take anywhere from two to 12 weeks. While 12 weeks may seem like a long time, it really isn’t when you consider the amount of value the pre construction phase adds to the project.

Building your new home is exciting, especially when you understand how the process works.


The 10 steps to build a new home are:

Prepare construction site and pour foundation

Construct rough framing

Complete rough pluming, electrical and HVAC

Install insulation

Complete drywall and interior textures; start exterior finishes

Finish interior trim; install exterior driveways and walkways

Install hard-surface flooring and countertops, and complete exterior grading

Finish mechanical trims; install bathroom fixtures

Install mirrors, shower doors and finish flooring, and finish exterior landscaping

Final walkthrough with builder

There is generally a requirement that you cannot sell the house immediately after construction unless you are a general building contractor with proven experience, a license, and proper and adequate insurance. … You can function as your own contractor and build your own house.

  1. Set goals. Creating a new home for your self is all about setting goals and taking the steps to achieve those goals. …
  2. Questions to ask: • …
  3. Establish a budget. …
  4. Find some land — or a neglected older house. …
  5. Assemble a team. …
  6. Plan, plan, and plan some more. …
  7. Accept the inevitable. …

Some tips for staying sane during construction

  1. Set a budget, and stick to it.
  2. Give yourself flexibility with the base price.
  3. Choose your builder wisely.
  4. Ask about closing cost incentives.
  5. Can you install it yourself? Do it.
  6. Do research on your appliances.
  7. Don’t knock fake wood floors.
  8. Go standard and upgrade later.

कंस्ट्रक्शन मैनेजमेंट, कॉस्ट एस्टिमेशन एंड कारपेन्टरी are among the more पॉपुलर कंस्ट्रक्शन कैरियर्स. While सम जॉब्स in the कंस्ट्रक्शन फील्ड require लिटिल more than a हाई स्कूल डिप्लोमा or its एक्विवैलेन्ट and on-the-job ट्रेनिंग, other पोसिशन्स – like those in मैनेजमेंट और कॉस्ट एस्टिमेशन – often require at least a बैचलर degree. Apprenticeships are another कॉमन path to many कंस्ट्रक्शन कैरियर्स.

  • कंस्ट्रक्शन मैनेजर्स

कंस्ट्रक्शन मैनेजर्स प्लान, कोआर्डिनेट, and सुपरवाइज़ कंस्ट्रक्शन प्रोजेक्ट्स from start to finish, while ensuring their कम्पलीशन within client and/or blueprint specifications. This करियर typically requires a bachelor’s degree in कंस्ट्रक्शन मैनेजमेंट or a related field; however, less एजुकेशन coupled with एक्सपीरियंस also could suffice.

  • कॉस्ट एस्टिमेटॉर्स

कॉस्ट एस्टिमेटॉर्स provide an estimate of costs that will be involved in a कंस्ट्रक्शन प्रोजेक्ट. These एस्टिमेट्स are used by businesses or managers who bid on कंस्ट्रक्शन प्रोजेक्ट्स. कॉस्ट एस्टिमेटॉर्स typically hold a bachelor’s degree in a field like कंस्ट्रक्शन मैनेजमेंट or engineering and have a strong background in math.

  • कारपेंटर्स

कारपेंटर्स build a variety of structures एंड items, including किचन cabinets and wooden furniture. They install, repair, erect and कंस्ट्रक्ट ऑब्जेक्ट्स made primarily from wood. कारपेंटर्स typically need a हाई स्कूल डिप्लोमा, and many complete a 3- to 4-year apprenticeship प्रोग्राम to learn this trade.

कारपेंटर्स also could see an average rise in जॉब opportunities from 2016-2026. According to the BLS, this increase could be 8%. कारपेंटर्स had a median एनुअल सैलरी of $46,590 in 2018, based on BLS figures.

Other कंस्ट्रक्शन कैरियर्स

  • सीमेंट masons and कंक्रीट finishers
  • प्लम्बर्स pipefitters and steamfitters
  • रूफर्स
  • कंस्ट्रक्शन laborers
  • वेल्डिंग, soldering, एंड brazing वर्कर्स

I होप यू like the  इनफार्मेशन

So, you want to know what are the टिप्स you can follow if you are just a beginner in this filed. If this is the case then read on below and finds सम कंस्ट्रक्शन टिप्स which can be useful for you.

  1. Get एडवाइस from the बिल्डर before doing any work.
  2. Start small वर्क and work passionately so that you can handle बिग  प्रोजेक्ट्स.
  3. वियर the राइट safety equipment so that you won’t harm yourself 
  4. Start doing a लबोरिंग वर्क for the बिल्डर्स with this you will get experience.
  5. Your होम is a good place to लर्न so start समथिंग creative in your होम.
  6. कंस्ट्रक्शन वर्क  is dangerous so be aware of the things. Stay away from the हाइट्स  .
  7. Don’t give up if something goes wrong . You are a लर्नर. Keep लर्निंग and trying.

Note- Whenever you are starting a प्रोजेक्ट  start it with a proper प्लान  and execute it properly.

These are the टिप्स  you can follow. Now if you are a रेजिडेंस of देहरादून and want a कंस्ट्रक्शन  कंपनी  who can वर्क  properly for you then, don’t go so far just connect with घुघूती सर्विसेज.

Well, पीपल if you don’t know the difference between a आर्किटेक्चर  and a बिल्डर  then must go on and know the difference.

So, they are both employed to डिज़ाइन बिल्डिंग्स  even they share some of the कॉमन skills. But somehow how they both are different.

  • A आर्किटेक्चर  plan and remember the बिल्डिंग  keeping functions requirement.
  • And a बिल्डर  executes and makes it a reality.

Let’s अंडरस्टैंड  with it an एक्साम्प्ले.

You are बिल्डिंग  a होम. And for this, you will need a आर्किटेक्चर, a बिल्डर, a इंजीनियर.

A आर्किटेक्चर  will consider factors like- लोकेशन, स्पेस, requirement, plans the layout, decide the एक्सटर्नल  अपीयरेंस. His work precedes the वर्क  of others.

Now the स्ट्रक्चरल  इंजीनियर will handle the work. He considers what will happen to the स्ट्रक्चर  under its own weight.  He also determines the depth of the फाउंडेशन and the type of foundation. He also prepares the detail ड्राइंग  to describe every part of the स्ट्रक्चर.

The बिल्डर  (also called contractor) will execute this entire thing.  He ओर्गनइजेस  everything from the purchasing of the मटेरियल to manage the actual कंस्ट्रक्शन.

I think now you all will get to know what the डिफरेंस is.

People बिल्ड  so many things for a long time. But, do you know some of the facts about this इंडस्ट्री. Today we are gonna talk about this.

  • Do you know a ५७ – story skyscraper was बिल्ट  in चीन in just १९  days.
  • The फोटो  of लंच  Atop a skyscraper was taken on the ६९थ  floor by चार्ल्स  िब्बेट्स.
  • The ग्रेट  पिरामिड of Giza was the टॉलेस्ट  बिल्डिंग  in the वर्ल्ड  and also recognized as Seven  वंडर्स  of the ancient world.
  • At the end of २०१७, the फोरकास्ट spends $106 बिलियन on all कंस्ट्रक्शन  for the थ्री  इयर्स.
  • The कंस्ट्रक्शन  employee’s एवरेज age is ४०.
  • If we talk about the वॉल्यूम  Boeing  फैक्ट्री  in Everett, वाशिंगटन is the लार्जेस्ट  बिल्डिंग  in the वर्ल्ड  by वॉल्यूम. 4.3 मिलियन  फ्लोर areas and a वॉल्यूम  are of 472 मिलियन cubic feet.
  • Full name of Statute of Liberty’s is लिबर्टी एन्लिघ्टनिंग  the वर्ल्ड.

What are your thoughts? If you people know some more इंटरेस्टिंग  facts about कंस्ट्रक्शन  इंडस्ट्री  then, feel free to comment on this.

What is जनरल  कांट्रेक्टिंग?

जनरल  कांट्रेक्टर  workers oversee and enlist सबकॉन्ट्रैक्टर्स  while going about as the essential contact with कंस्ट्रक्शन  clients. They additionally कॉन्ट्रैक्ट  मास्टर्स  to take care of प्लंबिंग, वार्मिंग, and कूलिंग, पेंटिंग or मटेरियल parts of an undertaking.

Definition of जनरल  कांट्रेक्टिंग-

जनरल कांट्रेक्टिंग  is the term used to portray the supervisory work performed by a जनरल कांट्रेक्टर (GC). This individual is answerable for overseeing and बिल्डिंग  a venture structured by another person. The GC directs significant redesign and बिल्डिंग  undertakings, and she or he oversees and कॉन्ट्रैक्ट्स  सबकॉन्ट्रैक्टर्स  and other work in कंस्ट्रक्शन  प्रोजेक्ट्स. The GC goes about as the director of the whole task and guarantees that the सबकॉन्ट्रैक्टर्स are carrying out their responsibility and being paid for it accurately and in an opportune way. The जनरल कांट्रेक्टर  is likewise the फंडामेंटल individual in contact with the कस्टमर्स.

जनरल  कांट्रेक्टिंग  in the कंस्ट्रक्शन इंडस्ट्री-

The जनरल कांट्रेक्टर administers part or the entirety of various कंस्ट्रक्शन  प्रोजेक्ट्स, for example, बिज़नेस, मैकेनिकल, and प्राइवेट  structures. On the off chance that a कंस्ट्रक्शन   प्रोजेक्ट  requires a claim to fame, for example, प्लंबिंग, वार्मिंग, and कूलिंग, पेंटिंग or मटेरियल, at that point they कॉन्ट्रैक्ट  सबकॉन्ट्रैक्टर्स  to do that specific job.

लाइसेंसिंग requirement in जनरल  contracting–

A few states require a जनरल contractor to be authorized so as to take a shot at प्रोजेक्ट्स. Each state has various prerequisites. जनरल contractual वर्कर्स  with a permit to improve their aptitudes with current इनफार्मेशन  in बिज़नेस स्ट्रेटेजीज, guideline prerequisites, and बिल्डिंग  support. Authorized जनरल कॉन्ट्रैक्टर्स  can be all the more engaging क्लाइंट्स  since they show validity and training.

  1. Map Designing-
  • 2D Designing
  • Site Measurement
  • Layout Planning
  • Final mapping according to building bylaws and vastu sastrra
  • 3D Designing
  • to structure rules
  • To customer’s choice
  • Design for elevation/sectional drawings 
  • Estimating & Costing

Building construction involves a huge amount of material and budget. After, planning and structural detailing  prepare an estimate and abstract sheet which shows the cost of building construction. If financial resources are limited, we need to seek pre-approval for loans in advance or else you may end up in a cash crunch situation.

  • We should prepare rough & proper estimate both for material cost and labor cost
  • Calculate the time of completion of work



  1. Prepare Construction Site-
  • Site Cleaning: – The construction site must be cleaned before the work is executed. This work involves the removal of roots of trees, debris and leveling ground area.
  • Layout planning on ground.


  1. Excavation and pcc for  foundation

(For the foundation of building ground is excavated with the help of excavating machine and labors as per building dimension specified in drawings. In this foundation trench a layer of pcc ( plain cement concrete) is laid in the dug portion before placing the reinforcements for the foundation.)

  • Foundation depth and width should be according to building height.
  • Treatment of the excavated area.


  1. Foundation:-

(The building is supported on the foundation. foundation is the lowermost part of the building that is in contact with the soil. A building is load transferred from the superstructure to the soil and needs to be extremely strong to handle the load. After the PCC work foundation reinforcement work is started. The foundation bottom level must check before concreting it. Remaining space between foundations is filled with earth)

  • Concrete work for foundation
  • Use mixture machine for proper mixture
  • Use proper grade of mixture for example – M10 (1:3:6), (Cement : Sand : Aggregate)
  • Reinforcement for footing & foundation
  • For foundation work we should take 12 & 16 mm dia bar for footing & 8mm dia bar for stirrups

(Top brand for steel is- “Fe 415 grade Brands: Tehri Steel, Rana Steel”), reinforcement is totally based on structure.

Important to Note – We prepare our structure  according to earthquake resistance building.
  1. Plinth beam:-

After the foundation work is done ground beam formwork preparation is started and poured with concrete. Over plinth beam, masonry work is started. And space between foundation and plinth beam filled with soil.

  • Plinth Beam – Mixture ratio for plinth beam should be M15 (1:2:4) (Cement : Sand : Aggregate)
  • Reinforcement for plinth beam is 12mm and 16mm dia bar and 8mm for stirrups. reinforcement is totally based on structure.



The superstructure is the portion above the plinth level of the building. The main component of the superstructure is column and beam.  The columns are built up to slab level and the frame for further construction is prepared.

  1. Column
  2. Mixture ratio for column should be M15 (1:2:4) (Cement : Sand : Aggregate)
  3. Reinforcement for column is 12mm 16mm dia bar and for stirrups is 8mm dia bar. reinforcement is totally based on structure.



  1. Brick work for masonry

As coulumn and beam frame work completed masonary work is started with different materials such as bricks, bricks concrete blocks, fly ash bricks, etc according to building drawing. Masonry work is done using cement mortar mix. It is a mixture of cement & sand. During this carefully and as per drawing gaps are laid for doors and windows during the masonry work.


  1. use CLC Bricks (Red Brick) External walls, 8.5″x4.5 Bricks “Crushed Sand For Joining Mortar “
  2. cement sand ratio for masonry work is 1:6


  1. Door window frame installation

4. Metal frame

 Advantage:- Advantages of Metal Door and window FramesMetalframes are strong, can withstood storm and earthquakes. Metal frames are safe against burglars. Metal frames are safe against fire. Metal frames are economical in cost. Metal frames are light in weight so can fix easily. They can be easily handled and transport cost is less.


  • There is rusting problem in metal frames.
  • They cannot give architectural view.
  1. Wooden frame


Advantage :-

  • Wooden frames are not affected by temperature because wood have high R-value
  • Wooden frames give very good or attractive looks in the building.
  • The problems of joints with frame and masonry can easily be solved by fixing wooden beading on Wooden frames doors and windows are more resistance to air and wind than the metal frames as they have minimum joint in frame and shutter.


  • The wooden frames are affected by termite and insects.
  • Cost of the good quality timber is very high. So they are costly than metal frames but cheap in the comparison of aluminum frames.
  • If season wood is not used than due to this there is twisting problems found in the wooden frames.
  • The wooden frames are affected by the moisture.
  1. UPVC

Advantage :-

  • UPVC is also the most durable of the materials available. It is strong, tough and resilient.
  • UPVC doors never rots, flakes, rusts, fades, pits, peels or corrodes. It needs only a light soapy wash and a check of the seals for maintenance. UPVC requires virtually no maintenance making it very convenient and time-saving.
  • UPVC is a stable material so it is pollution resistant, sea water resistant and chemical proof. Wood can swell and rot and aluminum and steel can corrode and have galvanic reaction to the fasteners.
  • UPVC materials are good insulating materials due to which, it keeps home warmer in winter and cooler houses in summer. UPVC prevents thermal bridging so prevents condensation unlike aluminum.
  • When it comes to cost, UPVC doors are much cheaper than aluminum and timber doors.


  • UPVC doors are unsuitable to be used as the front door as due to their light weight.
  • They are not weather proof enough like wooden or aluminum doors.
  • It doesn’t appear to be attractive due to its simple plastic look. However they are available in wide range of colors.
  1. lintel work

the lintel is constructed on door and window to support the masonary over it. After this further masonay work is done.

  • Use 8mm, 10mm and 12mm dia bar for reinforcement work in lintel
  • Mixture ratio for lintel should be M15 (1:2:4) (Cement : Sand : Aggregate)
  1. Roof work

Then the formwork is started to construct slab resting on the column and beam. Over slab formwork, slab reinforcement is placed as per slab detailed drawing.

  • 10mm(main bar) and 12mm(distributaries bar) dia bar for reinforcement work in roof
  • M15 (1:2:4), (Cement : Sand : Aggregate) grade use in roof work
  1. Plumbing work
  • Make a proper plumbing drawing
  • Installation of fixture
  • Pipe fitting according to drawing

Different types of pipe we use in plumbing:-

  1. PVC Pipe
  • PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, pipe is a drain or vent line type of plumbing pipe. PVC initially gained popularity because it was lighter and easier to work with than traditional galvanized steel pipe. PVC pipe is moderately easy to install and requires little more than a hacksaw and a miter box to cut. PVC glues together with solvents.


  • Diameters clearly marked on the white surface of the pipe
  • Inexpensive and can be used for long runs such as for irrigation
  • Easier to work with than steel or copper



  • The pipe cannot be unjoined and must be cut
  • Glued pipes can be prone to leaking
  • Degrades in sunlight
  • i. pipe :-

Galvanized pipes are types of steel pipes coated with another metal to discourage rusting. The coating is usually made of zinc. If you are considering galvanized bollards for your business or organization, take a moment to review the advantages and disadvantages first.


  • Galvanized coating is designed to prevent corrosion and rust.
  • It is also manufactured to keep other minerals, such as calcium, from building up on the pipes or bollards.
  • It can last for years depending on the quality of the coating and the application.



  • Despite its longevity and corrosion resistance, galvanized coatings are still subject to chipping, cracking, and similar damage.
  • In addition to heavy handling, galvanized pipes and bollards are frequently environmental hazards.
  • Additional galvanization disadvantages include the cost.


  • Difficult for do-it-yourselfers to work with due to soldered connections
  • Expensive
  • Develops pinhole leaks
  • Inside of pipe may eventually corrode and impede water flow
  1. ABS Pipe:-

ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) pipe is mainly used as a vent and drain line. ABS pipe looks very much like PVC pipe, except that it is black and slightly softer.



  • Stronger than PVC pipes
  • Good for underground exterior use
  • Works well in cold temperatures


  • Often not permitted by building code
  • Warps and deforms at certain temperatures

(As we know that buildings are constructed with a clean finish in which electrical and plumbing work is not visible. They are installed in the walls and slabs such that they are concealed and not visible after the finishing work is done. The point and pipe end left out such that later they can be finished with the electric fitting and plumbing fixtures)


  1. Electricity work
  • Make a proper electricity drawing
  • Safety rules during electrical installation, proper wiring connection
  1. Plaster: – Plaster, a pasty composition (as of lime or gypsum, water, and sand) that hardens on drying and is used for coating walls, ceilings, and partitions. Cement sand ratio in plaster is (1:4).


Once this work is completed, external plastering and finishing work is started. Waterproofing is also done to prevent rising dampness in the wall. External cladding can also be done to enhance the elevation of the house.


Internal walls are plaster with smooth finish and flooring is done with tiles. Later on, the walls are painted or textured.

  • Dry area – normal plaster used in dry area like living area, bedrooms etc.
  • Wet area- in wet area like kitchen, bathroom and washing area dr. fixit powder is mixed in plaster.
  1. Terrace and roof finishing

On top of the slab, waterproofing is done to prevent any leakage in the slab. Generally, terrazzo tiling is done to prevent the slab from a weathering effect.

  1. White washing and paint
  • White washing is first base coat before paint
  • Paint color is is based upon design and customers choice .
  • Different types of paints brand are in trend , ex:- asian, dulux, nerolac ,berger etc.
  1. Installation for fixture
  • Modular kitchen and wordrobe

Different type of boards available in market:-

  1. Wpc board :- WPC boards are the best alternative for natural wood, as well as plywood. WPC Boards are the get over of the entire problem faced with the plywood. WPC boards have more internal strength weight and above all and no trees are cut in their production. So, let us understand the composition of WPC boards, the long-form of WPC is wood plastic composite boards in terms of percentage it comprises of 70% of virgin polymer 15% of wood powder and remaining 15% of the additive chemical.


  • WPC boards are 100% termite proof and waterproof. Which means they are a durable product.
  • WPC do not corrode and are highly resistance to rot, decay and marine borer attack.
  • You can cut any design on WPC boards with a CNC router. Finishing of WPC grill (jali) is better than MDF and stronger also.
  • As per the requirement and need, It can be moulded into different shape and sizes. Due to this, it can be used for making for designer doors and window which will give you rich look and fine polishing.
  • WPC boards is a polymer-based product it is self-extinguishing and doesn’t ignite the fire when in touch with a fire source.
  • No trees are cut in there making, that means they are environment-friendly products leading to a green revolution.


Disadvantages of WPC Boards:-

  • The resistance of WPC to extreme temperature is low as compared to wood. If you put kitchen utensils directly on WPC boards it will cause melting impression if the temperature is more than 70°C.
  • The laser cutter cannot be used on WPC boards as it will burn the boards.
  • It contains a plastic polymer and wood fibres so the shortcoming of both this material will be present in it.
  • The cost of WPC material is higher as compared to other material used for the same purpose.


  1. Hdhmr board:- HDHMR is being considered as the most reliable product for making furniture. Furniture made on HDHMR is highly durable under extreme climatic conditions, be it highly moist or dry. Ease in engraving and routing makes HDHMR the most suitable choice for innovative embellishments.


  • HDHMR stands for High Density High Moisture Resistance. It is basically an upgraded term of plywood, used to develop tough and robust wooden usage.
  • Explaining the definition, HDHMR board is made by combining fiber chips, forest wood waste through a homogeneously construction process.
  • The first main attractive thing about HDHMR board we want to focus is, water resistance. As you can see in the name the term, High density is achieved through the combination of the hard wood particle board along with the special glue pressing technique.
  • Compare to others, they are available in half of the cost. One should also not forget that all the boards are made up using wood chips/ fiber or peeled trunk.


  • Hdhmr board is easy to scratches.
  • Cleaning hdhmr board is tough.
  • Take hdhmr board is out of sun raise.
  • Fire or heating elements is dangerous for hdhmr board.
  1. Final finishing and accessories instalation

By following the above step, almost construction work is completed and then after furniture work is started. Side by side, electrical fitting, switchboard, and plumbing fittings are complete in the bathrooms and kitchen areas too.


  1. The last step of building construction is interior decoration work in completing the building construction with proper furnishing and fabric used.
  1. Some main points to notice before building construction process:-


  • Rain water harvesting:-
  • Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off. Rainwater can be collected from rivers or roofs, and in many places, the water collected is redirected to a deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), aquifer, a reservoir with percolation, or collected from dew or fog with nets or other tools. Its uses include water for gardens, livestock, irrigation, domestic use with proper treatment, indoor heating for houses, etc. The harvested water can also be used as drinking water, longer-term storage, and for other purposes such as groundwater recharge.
  • Rainwater harvesting is one of the simplest and oldest methods of self-supply of water for households usually financed by the user.
  • Septic tank:-

A septic tank is an underground chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for basic treatment. Settling and anaerobic processes reduce solids and organics, but the treatment efficiency is only moderate (referred to as “primary treatment. Septic tank systems are a type of simple onsite sewage facility (OSSF). They can be used in areas that are not connected to a sewerage system, such as rural areas. The treated liquid effluent is commonly disposed in a septic drain field, which provides further treatment. Nonetheless, groundwater pollution may occur and can be a problem.

  • Soak pit tank:-

The water in the septic tank is not pure, it is called grey water because it still contains organic materials that need to be filtered out.  A Soak Pit is a covered, porous-walled chamber that allows water to slowly soak into the ground. Pre-settled effluent from septic tank is discharged to the underground chamber from where it infiltrates into the surrounding soil.

  • Inspection chamber:-

All underground drainage systems must have access points, to enable the drains to be inspected on a regular basis and to be cleaned in the event of a blockage. The most common form of access is an inspection chamber, often still referred to as a manhole. In times gone by, manholes were actually large, bricked up chambers that had iron steps built into the wall, enabling a person to physically climb down into the drainage system. The main difference between one of these old manholes and a plastic inspection chamber is that inspection chambers do not permit physical entrance into the drains.

  • Main hole :-

A manhole (alternatively utility hole, cable chamber, maintenance hole[1], inspection chamber, access chamber or sewer hole) is an opening to a confined space such as a shaft, utility vault, or large vessel. Manholes are often used as an access point for an underground public utility, allowing inspection, maintenance, and system upgrades. The majority of underground services have manholes, including water, sewers, telephone, electricity, storm drains, district heating, and gases.

Redesign of a home or property implies changes and updates were made to the property, yet major basic changes didn’t occur.

For instance, painting the wall of a kitchen, supplanting the spigot and appliances, and re-trying the deck would all fall under a redesign? Be that as it may, if dividers were moved and space was extended or changed, this would be known as a rebuild.

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